Fixed Period based systems (also called "cyclical systems" ) are designed so
that each inventory item is reviewed and reorders are placed after a
predetermined time interval (i.e. every 2 weeks, every 30 days, etc.).
Orders are placed for each item equal to the difference between current
inventory level and a predetermined maximum. In cyclical systems, time
between reorders is constant, but reorder quantity is variable.
Predetermined maximums are set with a consideration of order lead time.
It involves scheduled periodic reviews of the Stock level of all inventory
items as follows :
Fixed Schedules (calendar) for reviewing a group of items
Fixed Desired inventory level (DIL) of each item or group of items
is calculated. In case stock level of an item is insufficient to sustain the production
until the next scheduled review , order is placed to replenish the stock to DIL
Maintenance of perpetual inventory records
Procedure : First , all the inventory items are
grouped in certain feasible categories or classes of items
such as Pipes & Pipe fittings, Raw materials, Chemicals &
Reagents, Oil and Lubricants etc.
Now, a calendar is drawn for all the classes so that
depending upon the number of classes each class is
reviewed for replenishment during certain specified time
Besides, the DIL or MaxL for each group or
individual item is fixed.
Depending upon the Review period
, a class of items is reviewed w.r.t. its Stock position,
Production plan, any dues in quantity against any previous
The DIL or MaxL= (RP+LT+SS) X D
During review and based on the Lead time , if the present
stock of an item or group of items is not expected to last
the next production
plan then action for replenishment is taken by raising the
material procurement requisition.
The Order quantity is decided by (MaxL- (Present stock +
Suitability of the system :
For materials whose purchases can be planned months in advance
For materials which exhibit an irregular or seasonal usage pattern
For items with volatile prices
For group of items purchased from and shipped together by one supplier
Disadvantages of the system :
Compels periodic reviews of all items
Not effective to combat stock out situations
Actual ordering quantities may deviate from optimum quantity
Tends to peak the purchasing work load around the review dates
There is no automatic trigger for reorder before the review time in the
event of increased usage, which generally leads to increased inventory
levels as a means of stock out prevention
System does not permit effective use of economic order quantities.